# The theory and practice of perspective

The Theory and Practice of Perspective

Definitions

The Point of Sight, the Horizon, and the Point of Distance

Point of Distance

Perspective of a Point, Visual Rays,&c.

Trace and Projection

Scientific Definition of Perspective

The Rules and Conditions of Perspective

Rule 1

Rule 2

Rule 3

Rule 4

Rule 5

Rule 6

Rule 7

Rule 8

Rule 9

Rule 10

A Table or Index of the Rules of Perspective

Rule 1

Rule 2

Rule 3

Rule 4

Rule 5

Rule 6

Rule 7

Rule 8

Rule 9

Rule 10

The Square in Parallel Perspective

The Diagonal

The Square

Geometrical and Perspective Figures Contrasted

Of Certain Terms made use of in Perspective

How to Measure Vanishing or Receding Lines

How to Place Squares in Given Positions

How To Draw Pavements, &c.

Of Squares placed Vertically and at Different Heights, or the Cube in Parallel Perspective

The Transposed Distance

The Front View of the Square and of the Proportions of Figures at Different Heights

Of Pictures that are Painted according to the Position they are to Occupy

Interiors

The Square at an Angle of 45 grad

The Cube at an Angle of 45 grad

Pavements Drawn by Means of Squares at 45 grad

The Perspective Vanishing Scale

The Vanishing Scale can be Drawn to any Point on the Horizon

Application of Vanishing Scales to Drawing Figures

How to Determine the Heights of Figures on a Level Plane

The Horizon above the Figures

Landscape Perspective

Figures of Different Heights: The Chessboard

Application of the Vanishing Scale to Drawing Figures at an Angle when their Vanishing Points are Inaccessible or Outside the Picture

The Reduced Distance. How to Proceed when the Point of Distance is Inaccessible

How to Draw a Long Passage or Cloister by means of the Reduced Distance

How to Form a Vanishing Scale that shall give the Height, Depth, and Distance of any Object in the Picture

Measuring Scale on Ground

Application of the Reduced Distance and the Vanishing Scale to Drawing a Lighthouse, &c.

How to Measure Long Distances such as a Mile or Upwards

Further Illustration of Long Distances and Extended Views

How to Ascertain the Relative Heights of Figures on an Inclined Plane

How to Find the Distance of a Given Figure or Point from the Base Line

How to Measure the Height of Figures on Uneven Ground

Further Illustration of the Size of Figures at Different Distances and on Uneven Ground

Figures on a Descending Plane

Further Illustration of the Descending Plane

Further Illustration of Uneven Ground

The Picture Standing on the Ground

The Picture on a Height

Angular Perspective

How to put a Given Point into Perspective

A Perspective Point being given, Find its Position on the Geometrical Plane

How to put a Given Line into Perspective

To Find the Length of a Given Perspective Line

To Find these Points when the Distance-Point is Inaccessible

How to put a Given Triangle or other Rectilineal Figure into Perspective

How to put a Given Square into Angular Perspective

Of Measuring Points

How to Divide any Given Straight Line into Equal or Proportionate Parts

How to Divide a Diagonal Vanishing Line into any Number of Equal or Proportional Parts

Further Use of the Measuring Point O

Further Use of the Measuring Point O

Another Method of Angular Perspective, being that Adopted in our Art Schools

Two Methods of Angular Perspective in one Figure

To Draw a Cube, the Points being Given

Amplification of the Cube Applied to Drawing a Cottage

How to Draw an Interior at an Angle

How to Correct Distorted Perspective by Doubling the Line of Distance

How to Draw a Cube on a Given Square, using only One Vanishing Point

A Courtyard or Cloister Drawn with one Vanishing Point

How to Draw Lines which shall Meet at a Distant Point, by Means of Diagonals

How to Divide a Square Placed at an Angle into a Given Number of Small Squares

Further Example of how to Divide a Given Oblique Square into a Given Number of Equal Squares, say Twenty-five

Of Parallels and Diagonals

The Square, the Oblong, and their Diagonals

Showing the Use of the Square and Diagonals in Drawing Doorways, Windows, and other Architectural Features

How to Measure Depths by Diagonals

How to Measure Distances by the Square and Diagonal

How by Means of the Square and Diagonal we can Determine the Position of Points in Space

Perspective of a Point Placed in any Position within the Square

Perspective of a Square Placed at an Angle New Method

On a Given Line Placed at an Angle to the Base Draw a Square in Angular Perspective, the Point of Sight, and Distance, being given.

How to Draw Solid Figures at any Angle by the New Method

Points in Space

The Square and Diagonal Applied to Cubes And Solids Drawn Therein

To Draw an Oblique Square in Another Oblique Square without Using Vanishing Points

Showing How a Pedestal can be Drawn by the New Method

Scale on Each Side of the Picture

The Circle

The Circle in Perspective a True Ellipse

Further Illustration of the Ellipse

How To Draw a Circle in Perspective Without a Geometrical Plan

How to Draw a Circle in Angular Perspective

How to Draw a Circle in Perspective more Correctly, by Using Sixteen Guiding Points

How to Divide a Perspective Circle into any Number of Equal Parts

How to Draw Concentric Circles

The Angle of the Diameter of the Circle in Angular and Parallel Perspective

How to Correct Disproportion in the Width of Columns

How to Draw a Circle over a Circle or a Cylinder

To Draw a Circle Below a Given Circle

Application of Previous Problem

Doric Columns

To Draw Semicircles Standing upon a Circle at any Angle

A Dome Standing on a Cylinder

Section of a Dome or Niche

A Dome

How to Draw Columns Standing in a Circle

Columns and Capitals

Method of Perspective Employed by Architects

The Octagon

How to Draw the Octagon in Angular Perspective

How to Draw an Octagonal Figure in Angular Perspective

How to Draw Concentric Octagons, with Illustration of a Well

A Pavement Composed of Octagons and Small Squares

The Hexagon

A Pavement Composed of Hexagonal Tiles

A Pavement of Hexagonal Tiles in Angular Perspective

Further Illustration of the Hexagon

Another View of the Hexagon in Angular Perspective

Application of the Hexagon to Drawing a Kiosk

The Pentagon

The Pyramid

The Great Pyramid

The Pyramid in Angular Perspective

To Divide the Sides of the Pyramid Horizontally

Of Roofs

Of Arches, Arcades, Bridges, &c.

Outline of an Arcade with Semicircular Arches

Semicircular Arches on a Retreating Plane

An Arcade in Angular Perspective

A Vaulted Ceiling

A Cloister, from a Photograph

The Low or Elliptical Arch

Opening or Arched Window in a Vault

Stairs, Steps, &c.

Steps, Front View

Square Steps

To Divide an Inclined Plane into Equal Parts�such as a Ladder Placed against a Wall

Steps and the Inclined Plane

Steps in Angular Perspective

A Step Ladder at an Angle

Square Steps Placed over each Other

Steps and a Double Cross Drawn by Means of Diagonals and one Vanishing Point

A Staircase Leading to a Gallery

Winding Stairs in a Square Shaft

Winding Stairs in a Cylindrical Shaft

Of the Cylindrical Picture or Diorama

The Perspective of Cast Shadows

The Two Kinds of Shadows

Shadows Cast by the Sun

The Sun in the Same Plane as the Picture

The Sun Behind the Picture

Sun Behind the Picture, Shadows Thrown on a Wall

Sun Behind the Picture Throwing Shadow on an Inclined Plane

The Sun in Front of the Picture

The Shadow of an Inclined Plane

Shadow on a Roof or Inclined Plane

To Find the Shadow of a Projection or Balcony on a Wall

Shadow on a Retreating Wall, Sun in Front

Shadow of an Arch, Sun in Front

Shadow in a Niche or Recess

Shadow in an Arched Doorway

Shadows Produced by Artificial Light

Some Observations on Real Light and Shade

Reflection

Angles of Reflection

Reflections of Objects at Different Distances

Reflection in a Looking-glass

The Mirror at an Angle

The Upright Mirror at an Angle of 45 grad to the Wall

Mental Perspective